The majority of public agencies in Arizona evaluate intersection configuration and intersection traffic control by considering only initial capital improvement costs. Societal costs associated to vehicular delay and crashes are only used as informative values, and operational and maintenance costs that would be incurred during the life cycle of the project are normally neglected.


The Kittelson team worked to conduct a life-cycle cost evaluation that accounts for capital cost (planning, design, construction, and right-of-way), annual operations cost, and maintenance cost (power, signal maintenance, lighting maintenance, pavement maintenance and signing/striping maintenance). The evaluation needed to account for delay and safety (crashes) costs related to intersection types.

Pima Intersection

Pima Intersection

The Outcome

Adding Traffic Safety to the Equation in Pima County

PICES (Pima Intersection Control Evaluation Spreadsheet) is a life-cycle cost spreadsheet tool that takes into account capital cost, operations and maintenance costs, delay costs and safety costs. PICES is capable of evaluating the following types of intersections: two-way stop control, four-way stop control, roundabout, traffic signal, displaced left-turn control, continuous green-T intersection, and restricted crossing U-turn intersection.




Pima County DOT


Tucson, Arizona